Discuto

Discuto

eParticipation – top down, bottom up or both?


In a recent article, Prieto-Martin et al (2012) voiced criticism over resource-intensive eParticipation projects organized by established institutions “top down” and advocated a low key grass roots approach “bottom up”. We want to look into this issue by comparing the results of a number of eParticipation projects managed by Cbased where documents were discussed and voted on the paragraph level by different types of communities.

Table 1 summarizes the results of five public consultations sorted according to size of the document discussed and the number of participants. Dedicated web sites were set up (see http://www.cbased.com/en/consultation/plattform-forschungsinfrastruktur-rat-fur-forschung-und-technologieentwicklung, http://expectations2012.eu/en), http://www.forschungsstrategie.at/, http://www.iktstrategie.at/, http://www.energieforschungsstrategie.at/) and awareness campaigns were conducted to promote participation in these projects.

 

Users

Size

Votes

Comments

Votes/

User

Relative

Comments/

User

Relative

EU Youth Expectations

217

51

2431

190

11,20

21,97%

0,88

1,72%

Research Infrastructure

155

64

1500

212

9,68

15,12%

1,37

2,14%

Energy Research Strategy

750

192

8000

806

10,67

5,56%

1,07

0,56%

Austrian Research Strategy

411

269

6828

713

16,61

6,18%

1,73

0,64%

Austrian National ICT Strategy

67

729

1231

151

18,37

2,52%

2,25

0,31%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Austrian National ICT Strategy

67

729

1231

151

18,37

2,52%

2,25

0,31%

Research Infrastructure

155

64

1500

212

9,68

15,12%

1,37

2,14%

EU Youth Expectations

217

51

2431

190

11,20

21,97%

0,88

1,72%

Austrian Research Strategy

411

269

6828

713

16,61

6,18%

1,73

0,64%

Energy Research Strategy

750

192

8000

806

10,67

5,56%

1,07

0,56%

Table 1 shows a quite uniform picture, with 1.5 comments/user and 13 Votes on average. Also the participation rates were close to the average of 20%. The feedback per user increases slightly with document size, as this provides more opportunities for feedback. However, the perceived relevance seems to decreases with size, as indicated when the votes and comments per user are set in relation to the document size. Though weaker, a similar effect can be seen with increasing community size.

Table 2 contains the results of private consultations (for further information on these projects see https://www.facebook.com/pages/Cbased/150967281630948). Most of the projects were conducted using the standard Cbased web design and invitation mails were the only means to create awareness (for an example see http://www.cbased.com/de/consultation/cluster-manifesto). Here one can observe higher feedback rates, but also much more variety. Also the participation rates ranged from 1% for Concept Master Program over 20% for the EU Cluster Manifesto and the Journalrating to 75% in the case of the Organisational Handbook and Postdoc Career Development. Nevertheless, document and community size still seem to play a role. One can therefore conjecture that smaller scale projects yield more intensive discussions, albeit at a risk. The reason for this phenomenon could be that it is easier to communicate the relevance of a more focused issue to a smaller group than a broader more abstract one to a more heterogeneous group. In the latter case the differences are averaged out, while in the former one there is the risk that the issue is not considered relevant at all.

 

Users

Size

Votes

Comments

Votes/

User

Relative

Comments/

User

Relative

EU Cluster Manifesto

111

19

500

171

4,50

23,71%

1,54

8,11%

Concept Master Program

34

29

43

15

1,26

4,36%

0,44

1,52%

Postdoc Carreer Development

48

30

543

159

11,31

37,71%

3,31

11,04%

Rating Agencies

71

32

293

76

4,13

12,90%

1,07

3,35%

Journalrating

111

55

889

70

8,01

14,56%

0,63

1,15%

Governance Codex

39

197

1205

125

30,90

15,68%

3,21

1,63%

Political Program

303

200

4039

328

13,33

6,67%

1,08

0,54%

Organisational Handbook

23

476

1211

378

52,65

11,06%

16,43

3,45%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Organisational Handbook

23

476

1211

378

52,65

11,06%

16,43

3,45%

Concept Master Program

34

29

43

15

1,26

4,36%

0,44

1,52%

Governance Codex

39

197

1205

125

30,90

15,68%

3,21

1,63%

Postdoc Carreer Development

48

30

543

159

11,31

37,71%

3,31

11,04%

Rating Agencies

71

32

293

76

4,13

12,90%

1,07

3,35%

EU Cluster Manifesto

111

19

500

171

4,50

23,71%

1,54

8,11%

Journalrating

111

55

889

70

8,01

14,56%

0,63

1,15%

Political Program

303

200

4039

328

13,33

6,67%

1,08

0,54%

Should we therefore stop public consultations? We think not. Even though in such cases one cannot expect that same intensity of participation than in more focused undertakings, the feedback gained is far higher and media rich than, for instance, in the case of traditional market surveys. In fact, the Austrian Research Strategy project was perceived as very successful and for this project the initiator Austrian Council received the "European Public Sector Awards 2011 (ESPA 2011)". Nevertheless, eParticipation projects involving complex tasks for large groups entail considerable and tailor-made effort to create awareness and to communicate the relevance and trustworthiness of the effort. If properly done, however, the risk is limited.

Potential initiators of bottom up projects lack the budget for such activities, but might be able to count on the intrinsic relevancy of the issue under debate. Due to the higher relevancy risk, this group of initiators does not need sophisticated configurable systems for engagement but rather a standardized and easy to set up tool so that the effort lost in case of a relevancy gap is limited. Therefore, based on the experiences made, Cbased has decided to offer two platforms: the cbased platform, on which custom-made projects are made, and discuto, which provides a set up within minutes and a fully automated project management.

Literature

Pedro Prieto-Martín, Luis de Marcos, Jose Javier Martínez: The e-(R)evolution will not be funded: A transdisciplinary and critical analysis of the developments and troubles of EU-funded eParticipation, European Journal of ePractice, 15, 2012, 62-89, 


About the author :

Alfred Taudes



Login or register to post comments
image_ava
FrancisParker 26.11.2019 - 14:45

Yea that is extremely an extraordinary start and I am truly stunned to peruse this article and now essay pro reddit services share quality work for students. This is an extraordinary thought to cover races by the state legitimately. So I couldn't want anything more than to thank the administrator of this news discussion for displaying this enlightening article.

image_ava
kiddiekisses 30.11.2019 - 23:11

Apple cider vinegar and honey

ACV is a popular health beverage, and yots of people attest to its effectiveness. While much of the study on apple cider vinegar is promising concerning blood glucose control, heart health, cancer protection, and murdering certain harmful bacteria, a number of the studies are small, have only been carried out on animals or have yet to be replicated.

Nonetheless, ACV is considered relatively safe to test, in doses under 2 tbsp every day. But most ACV detox diets frequently advocate more than that. Anyone on drugs or taking supplements should talk with their physician before beginning an ACV cleanse.

image_ava
karl87 11.01.2020 - 19:38

coin master hack the best place to get free spins and coins for Coin Masters game 

Let me introduce you this first working Garena Free Fire Hack which can easily generate you unlimited Diamonds. 

image_ava
MashAli 06.12.2019 - 23:58

The top-down approach relies on higher authority figures to determine larger goals that will filter down to the tasks of lower level employees. In comparison, the bottom-up style of communication features a decision-making process that gives the entire staff a voice in company goals.  real estate turkey

image_ava
charlly 14.01.2020 - 11:30

You have given a detailed description of the eParticipation. It is really nice that you have added some examples and images. It will help the readers to understand more about the eParticipation.  Hostsailor  Thank you for this post. 

image_ava
zaiyamariya 15.01.2020 - 08:23

The discussion on eParticipation of top-down and bottom-up approach gives a clear picture of the eParticipation.  Chrome Crashing Windows 10  The process includes service delivery, decision making, and policymaking. Comparing the result of several eParticipation projects help us make a good decision.